Tom Tvedt

Omsorgsboliger som sparebørse

Kommunene kan tjene 7.875 kroner per måned med høye husleier og rause tilskudd til omsorgsboliger. Omsorgsboligene ligger i tillegg vel til rette for å ikke gi de tjenestene som en har krav på.

Tjenestene til mennesker med utviklingshemning står lagelig til når kommunen vil spare penger. Mye penger går til sektoren, rundt 28 milliarder kroner i kommunale driftsutgifter per år. Men kommunene får også rundhåndet dekning av sine kostnader fra staten. Bare rammetilskuddet til personer med utviklingshemning over 16 år er rundt 15 milliarder kroner. Tilskuddet til ressurskrevende tjenester er drøyt 10 milliarder kroner. I tillegg kommer andre tilskudd og kommunale skatteinntekter.

Lovverket er skjønnsmessig, dvs. at kommunens plikter er omtrentlige og tøyelige. Tjenestemottakernes rettsikkerhet er svak. Få klager på kommunale vedtak og en kan regne med at det går 100 til 200 år mellom hvert  tilsyn med tjenestene i et bofellesskap.

Stortdriftsfordeler, samordningsgevinster, produktivitet og skalaøkonomiske effekter

I rapporten fra konsulentselskapet Rune Devold AS rapporten til Molde kommune, kan en lese om stortdriftsfordeler, samordningsgevinster, produktivitet og skalaøkonomiske effekter. Begrepene dekker det samme, nemlig at færres mulig tjenesteytere gir tjenester til flest mulig.

I følge rapporten fra Rune Devold AS, så er muligheten for å kutte i tjenestene store:

"Med samordningsgevinster i drifta menes at en gjennom døgnet organiserer seg slikt at en har flest mulig situasjoner der en betjener flere brukere samtidig, eller etter tur i stedet for slik at alle vedtak iverksettes 1:1. Samordningseffekter øker produktiviteten. Det er vanlig å forutsette at drift av bofellesskap tar ut en effekt på minimum rundt 15-20%. I enkelte tiltak er det registrert rundt 40% samordning."

I følge Agenda Kaupang og Oslo Economics, er 79 prosent av kommunale driftskostnader med helse- og omsorgstjenestene til mennesker med utviklingshemning knyttet til tjenester i bofellesskap, dvs. rundt 22 milliarder kroner.

I følge konsulentselskapet Rune Devold AS, skal det være mulig å spare inn 15-40% prosent av disse driftskostnadene ved å unngå å gi individuelle tjenester. Følger kommunene disse påstandene, så kan kommunene spare mellom 3,3 og 8,8 milliarder kroner per år med å gi kollektive tjenester.

Når loven blir en anmodning, kontrollen er fraværende og politikerne ikke tar grep

Lovverket er klinkende klart på at tjenestene skal være knyttet til individet, verken til gruppen eller bofellesskapet. Men dette har lite å si så lenge rettsikkerheten er tilnærmet fraværende. Få klager på vedtak og statlige tilsyn finnes knapt.

FN-konvensjonen om rettighetene til mennesker med nedsatt funksjonsevne (CRPD), artikkel 19 slår fast at mennesker med nedsatt funkjsonsevne har rett til selv å velge hvor, hvordan og med hvem de skal bo, på lik linje med andre. Ingen skal måtte bo i en spesiell boform. Videre har en rett på de tjenestene som er nødvendige for å å kunne bo og være inkludert i samfunnet og for å hindre isolasjon eller segregering. Men konvensjonen er også ord på pappir og betyr lite all den tid at verken nasjonale eller kommunale myndigheter gjør forsøk på å etterleve konvensjonen.

Både norsk lovverk og FN-konvensjonen er bra. Problemet er at myndighetene knapt legger to pinner i kors for å sikre at lovverket og konvensjonen skal etterleves.

Tom Tvedt

27 desember 2021

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